# Statistics

This page is intended to be a repository for tutorials and information regarding inferential statistical tests.

## Selecting a Test

As part of the "Remedial Stats Anonymous" group, Valerie Freeman has created a flowchart for choosing a statistical test.

This table from UCLA Institute for Digital Research and Education can help you choose the correct statistical test based on the number and nature of your variables. It also provides links to demonstrate how to do such tests in SAS, Stata, SPSS, and R.

This table from the Handbook of Biological Statistics also helps you decide which test you should use.

## Common Statistical Tests used in Phonetics

### Linear Mixed-Effects Modeling

Introduction to LME modeling (by Ister Le Grezause). File:LME Intro.pdf

Bodo Winter's tutorial on linear models and linear mixed effects models in R.

### ANOVA

Bodo Winter's tutorial on the F distribution and basic principle behind ANOVAs.

Bodo Winter, a cogsci grad student at UC Merced, has a great set of tutorials on LME modeling, as well as one on ANOVAs and some principals of statistics, see his page here.

This pdf provides a basic guideline for reporting statistics in psychology.

Elementary statistics with R provides basic tutorials on a range of statistical analyses in R.

Quick R: Basic Stastics provides tutorials on a range of statistical tests in R.

Why stepwise isn't so wise slides from a presentation by Daniel Ezra Johnson on why to avoid stepwise variable selection and what to do instead.

The Wolfram MathWorld website has links to help you understand the math behind the statistical tests you are using.

Penn State Online Stats Courses. These courses cover a variety of different concepts and models, and they're free.

Introduction to Bayesian Data Analysis for Linguists and Psychologists A free course on Bayesian statistics offered by Shravan Vasishth. Assumes foundational knowledge in frequentist statistics.

Natalia Levshina's textbook "How to do Linguistics with R. Data exploration and statistical analysis." is a great introductory text for linguists. This can be accessed through UW libraries.

## UW Courses Useful for Linguists

LING 520: Stats for Linguists
The department now offers a course covering common statistical models that are used by linguists.
EDPSY 490: Basic Educational Statistics
"Measures of central tendency and variability, point and interval estimation, linear correlation, hypothesis testing."
• This course is a good introduction (and is a prerequisite for other courses), but you will be required to do the work by hand rather than using technology.
SOC 504-505-506: Applied Social Statistics

This course sequence involves working with sociological data but covers concepts useful for statistical tests in phonetics research. No previous knowledge of math or statistics is assumed. Some work is done by hand but most is done using technology. As of 2019-2020, SOC 504 includes an introduction to Stata and SOC 505 includes an introduction to R. SOC 505 is a class on generalized linear models.

CS&SS 221: Statistical Concepts and Methods for the Social Sciences
"Develops statistical literacy. Examines objectives and pitfalls of statistical studies; study designs, data analysis, inference; graphical and numerical summaries of numerical and categorical data; correlation and regression; and estimation, confidence intervals, and significance tests. Emphasizes social science examples and cases."